K. Suominen, E. Isometsa, and J. Lonnqvist, Elderly suicide attempters with depression are often diagnosed only after the attempt, Int J Geriatr Psychiatry, vol.19, issue.1, pp.35-40, 2004.

R. Moretti, Depression and Alzheimer's disease: symptom or comorbidity?, Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen, vol.17, issue.6, pp.338-382, 2002.

B. W. Rovner, Depression and Alzheimer's disease, Am J Psychiatry, vol.146, issue.3, pp.350-353, 1989.

R. Migliorelli, Prevalence and correlates of dysthymia and major depression among patients with Alzheimer's disease, Am J Psychiatry, vol.152, issue.1, pp.37-44, 1995.

S. Vida, Prevalence of depression in Alzheimer's disease and validity of Research Diagnostic Criteria, J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol, vol.7, issue.4, pp.238-282, 1994.

A. S. Henderson, J. A. Mackinnon, A. Christensen, H. Scott, L. R. Korten et al., The prevalence of depressive disorders and the distribution of depressive symptoms in later life: a survey using Draft ICD-10 and DSM-III-R, Psychol Med, vol.23, issue.3, pp.719-748, 1993.

D. Blazer, Depression in the elderly, N Engl J Med, vol.320, issue.3, pp.164-170, 1989.

Y. Forsell and W. B. , Incidence of major depression in a very elderly population, Int J Geriatr Psychiatry, vol.14, issue.5, pp.368-72, 1999.

L. A. Klatka, L. E. Schiffer, and R. B. , Psychiatric features in diffuse Lewy body disease: a clinicopathologic study using Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease comparison groups, Neurology, vol.47, issue.5, pp.1148-52, 1996.

A. J. Macdonald, ABC of mental health. Mental health in old age, Bmj, vol.315, issue.7105, pp.413-420, 1997.

C. E. Wells and . Pseudodementia, Am J Psychiatry, vol.136, issue.7, pp.895-900, 1979.

T. Feinberg and B. Goodman, Affective illness, dementia, and pseudodementia, J Clin Psychiatry, vol.45, issue.3, pp.99-103, 1984.

D. Burke, A. Sengoz, and R. Schwartz, Potentially reversible cognitive impairment in patients presenting to a memory disorders clinic, J Clin Neurosci, vol.7, issue.2, pp.120-123, 2000.

J. A. Saez-fonseca, L. Lee, and Z. Walker, Long-term outcome of depressive pseudodementia in the elderly, J Affect Disord, 2006.

M. Fava and K. G. Davidson, Definition and epidemiology of treatment-resistant depression, Psychiatr Clin North Am, vol.19, issue.2, pp.179-200, 1996.

J. C. Nelson, Diagnosing and treating depression in the elderly, J Clin Psychiatry, vol.62, pp.18-22, 2001.

N. Mittmann, The efficacy, safety and tolerability of antidepressants in late life depression: a meta-analysis, J Affect Disord, vol.46, issue.3, pp.191-217, 1997.

J. R. Lipsey, Nortriptyline treatment of post-stroke depression: a double-blind study, Lancet, vol.1, issue.8372, pp.297-300, 1984.

M. A. Jenike, The use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors in the treatment of elderly, depressed patients, J Am Geriatr Soc, vol.32, issue.8, pp.571-576, 1984.

M. A. Jenike, Monoamine oxidase inhibitors as treatment for depressed patients with primary degenerative dementia (Alzheimer's disease), Am J Psychiatry, vol.142, issue.6, pp.763-767, 1985.

B. A. Liu, M. N. Knowles, S. R. Shear, and N. H. , Hyponatremia and the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone associated with the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: a review of spontaneous reports, CMAJ, vol.155, issue.1, pp.519-546, 1996.

F. B. Van-der-wurff, The efficacy and safety of ECT in depressed older adults: a literature review, Int J Geriatr Psychiatry, vol.18, issue.10, pp.894-904, 2003.

A. J. Flint and G. N. , Effective use of electroconvulsive therapy in late-life depression, Can J Psychiatry, vol.47, issue.8, pp.734-775, 2002.

M. K. O'connor, The influence of age on the response of major depression to electroconvulsive therapy: a C, Am J Geriatr Psychiatry, vol.9, issue.4, pp.382-90, 2001.

A. J. Flint and S. L. Rifat, The treatment of psychotic depression in later life: a comparison of pharmacotherapy and ECT, Int J Geriatr Psychiatry, vol.13, issue.1, pp.23-31, 1998.

M. A. Oquendo and P. R. , What have we learned about the neurobiology of major depression?, Am J Psychiatry, vol.164, issue.4, pp.540-542, 2007.

K. A. Jobst, B. L. Shepstone, and B. J. , Accurate prediction of histologically confirmed Alzheimer's disease and the differential diagnosis of dementia: the use of NINCDS-ADRDA and DSM-III-R criteria, SPECT, X-ray CT, and Apo E4 in medial temporal lobe dementias. Oxford Project to Investigate Memory and Aging, Int Psychogeriatr, vol.10, issue.3, pp.271-302, 1998.

W. Jagust, SPECT perfusion imaging in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: a clinical-pathologic study, Neurology, vol.56, issue.7, pp.950-956, 2001.

Z. N. Mannie, C. J. Harmer, and P. J. Cowen, Increased waking salivary cortisol levels in young people at familial risk of depression, Am J Psychiatry, vol.164, issue.4, pp.617-638, 2007.

A. Westrin, K. Frii, and L. Traskman-bendz, The dexamethasone suppression test and DSM-III-R diagnoses in suicide attempters, Eur Psychiatry, vol.18, issue.7, pp.350-355, 2003.

B. J. Carroll, The dexamethasone suppression test for melancholia, Br J Psychiatry, vol.140, pp.292-304, 1982.

F. Contreras, Hormonal differences between psychotic and non-psychotic melancholic depression, J Affect Disord, 2006.

K. N. Fountoulakis, Are dexamethasone suppression test nonsuppression and thyroid dysfunction related to a family history of dementia in patients with major depression? An exploratory study, Can J Psychiatry, vol.50, issue.6, pp.342-347, 2005.

M. Z. Wamboldt, N. H. Kalin, and S. J. Weiler, Consistent reversal of abnormal DSTs after different antidepressant therapies in a patient with dementia, Am J Psychiatry, vol.142, issue.1, pp.100-103, 1985.

M. Raskind, Dexamethasone suppression test and cortisol circadian rhythm in primary degenerative dementia, Am J Psychiatry, vol.139, issue.11, pp.1468-71, 1982.

J. M. Azorin, Plasma levels of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol in depressed patients compared with normal controls, Neuropsychobiology, vol.23, issue.1, pp.18-24, 1990.

J. M. Azorin,

, Encephale, vol.16, issue.1, pp.31-35, 1990.

T. W. Mcallister, The dexamethasone suppression test in two patients with severe depressive pseudodementia, Am J Psychiatry, vol.139, issue.4, pp.479-81, 1982.

P. Fossati, Distributed self in episodic memory: neural correlates of successful retrieval of self-encoded positive and negative personality traits, Neuroimage, vol.22, issue.4, pp.1596-604, 2004.

C. H. Fu, Neural responses to happy facial expressions in major depression following antidepressant treatment, Am J Psychiatry, vol.164, issue.4, pp.599-607, 2007.

P. H. Chiu and P. J. Deldin, Neural evidence for enhanced error detection in major depressive disorder, Am J Psychiatry, vol.164, issue.4, pp.608-624, 2007.

M. Bourgeois, A. Hebert, and J. Maisondieu,

, Ann Med Psychol, vol.128, issue.5, pp.751-760, 1970.

K. G. Rasmussen and . Jr, Electroconvulsive therapy for patients with major depression and probable Lewy body dementia, J Ect, vol.19, issue.2, pp.103-112, 2003.

V. Rao and C. G. Lyketsos, The benefits and risks of ECT for patients with primary dementia who also suffer from depression, Int J Geriatr Psychiatry, vol.15, issue.8, pp.729-764, 2000.

I. C. Bernstein, Anorexia nervosa, 94-year-old woman treated with electroshock, Minn Med, vol.55, issue.6, pp.552-555, 1972.

T. A. Tomac, Safety and efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy in patients over age 85, Am J Geriatr Psychiatry, vol.5, issue.2, pp.126-156, 1997.

R. A. Cattan, Electroconvulsive therapy in octogenarians, J Am Geriatr Soc, vol.38, issue.7, pp.753-761, 1990.

J. Burd and P. Kettl, Incidence of asystole in electroconvulsive therapy in elderly patients, Am J Geriatr Psychiatry, vol.6, issue.3, pp.203-214, 1998.

D. Gaspar and L. A. Samarasinghe, ECT in psychogeriatric practice--a study of risk factors, indications and outcome, Compr Psychiatry, vol.23, issue.2, pp.170-175, 1982.

R. D. Weiner, The role of electroconvulsive therapy in the treatment of depression in the elderly, J Am Geriatr Soc, vol.30, issue.11, pp.710-712, 1982.

J. W. Folk, Anesthesia for electroconvulsive therapy: a review, J Ect, vol.16, issue.2, pp.157-70, 2000.

R. A. Liang, R. W. Lam, and R. J. , ECT in the treatment of mixed depression and dementia, Br J Psychiatry, vol.152, pp.281-285, 1988.

A. Kahn, M. M. Hughes, D. Bierut, L. , and E. Therapy, Psychiatr. Clin. North Am, vol.16, p.4976513, 1993.

R. Abrams and E. Therapy, , 1988.

R. M. Fraser and I. B. Glass, Recovery from ECT in elderly patients, Br J Psychiatry, vol.133, pp.524-532, 1978.

C. H. Kellner, Weekly ECT in Geriatric Depression, Convuls Ther, vol.8, issue.4, pp.245-252, 1992.

S. Peretti, . Electroconvulsivothérapie, and . Masson, Mémoire explicite, mémoire implicite et pathologies psychiatriques, 1993.

R. D. Weiner, Effects of stimulus parameters on cognitive side effects, Ann N Y Acad Sci, pp.315-340, 1986.

C. P. Freeman, D. Weeks, and R. E. Kendell, ECT: II: patients who complain, Br J Psychiatry, vol.137, pp.17-25, 1980.

C. D. Frith, Effects of ECT and depression on various aspects of memory, Br J Psychiatry, vol.142, pp.610-617, 1983.

L. R. Squire, ECT and memory dysfunction, 1984.

H. Sackeim, The cognitive effects of electroconvulsive therapy, Thal LJ, Moos WH,Gamzu E. Cognitive disorders pathophysiology and treatment, pp.183-228, 1992.

H. A. Sackeim, Effects of stimulus intensity and electrode placement on the efficacy and cognitive effects of electroconvulsive therapy, N Engl J Med, vol.328, issue.12, pp.839-885, 1993.

B. L. Steif, Effects of depression and ECT on anterograde memory, Biol Psychiatry, vol.21, issue.10, pp.921-951, 1986.

L. R. Squire, P. C. Slater, and P. L. Miller, Retrograde amnesia and bilateral electroconvulsive therapy. Long-term follow-up, Arch Gen Psychiatry, vol.38, issue.1, pp.89-95, 1981.

R. D. Weiner, Effects of stimulus parameters on cognitive side effects, Ann N Y Acad Sci, vol.462, pp.315-340, 1986.

C. S. Peretti, Bilateral ECT and autobiographical memory of subjective experiences related to melancholia: a pilot study, J Affect Disord, vol.41, issue.1, pp.9-15, 1996.

W. V. Mccall, Health-related quality of life following ECT in a large community sample, J Affect Disord, vol.90, issue.2-3, pp.269-74, 2006.

D. P. Devanand, D. A. Hutchinson, E. R. Bolwig, T. G. Sackeim, and H. A. , Does ECT alter brain structure?, Am J Psychiatry, vol.151, issue.7, pp.957-70, 1994.

M. W. Agelink, A. J. Postert, T. Wurzinger, U. Zeit, T. Klotz et al., Relation between electroconvulsive therapy, cognitive side effects, neuron specific enolase, and protein S-100, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, vol.71, issue.3, pp.394-400, 2001.

B. W. Scott, J. M. Wojtowicz, and W. M. Burnham, Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the rat following electroconvulsive shock seizures, Exp Neurol, vol.165, issue.2, pp.231-237, 2000.

T. M. Madsen, Increased neurogenesis in a model of electroconvulsive therapy, Biol Psychiatry, vol.47, issue.12, pp.1043-1052, 2000.

J. Hellsten, Electroconvulsive seizures induce endothelial cell proliferation in adult rat hippocampus, Biol Psychiatry, vol.55, issue.4, pp.420-427, 2004.

J. Hellsten, Electroconvulsive seizures induce angiogenesis in adult rat hippocampus, Biol Psychiatry, vol.58, issue.11, pp.871-879, 2005.

D. Malauzat, Thérapeutiques biologiques de la dépression du sujet âgé. Prid : les dépressions du sujet âgé, pp.95-112, 1996.